In this episode we will be concluding our series on the Modoc War of 1872-73. With the Modoc on the run, they retreated to a stronghold on the toe of a lava field, providing a bastion to protect their families from the U.S. Army. It took time to gather soldiers and supplies and did not attack until January 1873. It failed. In an attempt to break the impasse, negotiations led by General Canby were met with violence, coming to a sudden conclusion with the assassination of the general. A second attack in April 1873 succeeded, but not before the pursuing troops were ambushed by the retreating Modoc. Captain Jack and other leaders were captured in the spring. In a show trial, four Modoc, including their leader Captain Jack, were hanged in October 1877. The Modoc are still here, but the trauma of the event still lives with them.
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