One of the most consequential campaign's of the Civil War was U.S. Grant's struggle to capture the Confederate fortress at Vicksburg. As we already know, by mid-1862, Vicksburg was the only remaining major city on the Mississippi River in Confederate hands. As 1862 drew to a close, it became clear that Admiral Farragut's naval forces alone could not defeat the fortifications of Vicksburg. In the last quarter of 1862 Grant and his chief subordinate, Sherman, planned an envelopment of the city from the north and the south. These moves were checked, forcing Grant to consider alternative plans to capture the city.
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